A cryptographic hash functions is a mathematical formula that helps you convert a given value to another value that is irreversible.
In a hash functions you can feed any size of information but you still get a same length value.
The value that you get after processing a set of data through a hash function is called a hash value or sometimes is commonly called a message digest.
The process of transforming a given set of data to a specific hash value is called hashing the data.
The resulting value after hashing is much smaller compared to the data that passed through the function. This makes hash functions to act like kind of compression functions.
 Read: The complete list of ciphers.
The resulting value after hashing the data is called a digest.
One advantage of hash functions over normal ciphers techniques is that they are super fast and the resulting output is smaller too.
Hashes are supposed to be one way functions and irreversible.
Also a hash function should not result to the same value for two different pieces of information.
When two different pieces of data result to the same hash value, in that case hash collision has occurred and the function is not fit for use.
Here are different types of hashing algorithms and methods in cryptography.
List of hash functions
A list of Keyed cryptographic hash functions

VMAC
This is a block cipher that is based on message authentication code (MAC). This algorithm was proposed by Ted Krovertz and Wei Dai in 2007.

UMAC
This is also message authentication code (MAC) that is calculated by choosing a hash function from a class of hash functions according to random method and applying it to the message.

BLAKE2
This is based on Dan Bernstein’s Chacha stream cipher with a slight permutation on the input block. This is a type of cryptographic hash function that goes up to 512 bits and it’s based on keyed hash function (prefixMAC).

Poly1305AES
Uses AES block cipher to expand the key. This is a type of cryptographic message code with 128 bits and it’s noncebased.

SipHash
This is a 64 bits pseudorandom function based on noncollisionresistant PRF.

Onekey MAC
This is constructed from a block cipher. They are of two types (OMAC1 and OMAC2).

PMAC
It works by taking a block cipher and creating a good MAC that is reducible in security to the underlying block cipher. It is very similar to OMAC algorithm.

MD6
This is a 512 bits cryptographic hash function based on merkle tree NLFSR.

HMAC
Hash based message authentication code is a type of MAC that uses a cryptographic hash function and a secret key.
A list of unkeyed cryptographic hash functions

BLAKE256
This is a 256 bits hash function based on HAIFA structure.

BLAKE512
This is a 512 bits hash function based on HAIFA structure.

BLAKE2s
This is a type of cryptographic hash function that goes up to 256 bits and it’s based on HAIFA structure.

BLAKE2b
This is a type of cryptographic hash function that goes up to 512 bits and it’s based on HAIFA structure.

ECOH
This is a type of hash that has a range of 224 to 512 bits.

FSB
This is a type of hash that has a range of 160 to 512 bits.

GOST
This is a 256 bits hash.

Grostl
This is a type of hash that goes up to 512 bits.

HAS160
This is a 160 bits hash.

HAVAL
This is a type of hash that has a range of 128 to 256 bits.

JH
This is a type of hash that has a range of 224 to 512 bits.

MD2
This is a 128 bits hash.

MD4
This is a 128 bits hash.

MD6
This is a type of cryptographic hash function that goes up to 512 bits and it’s based on Merkle tree NLFSR.

MD5
This is a 128 bits hash function based on Merkle–Damgård construction.

RadioGatún
This is a type of hash that goes up to 1216 bits.

RIPEMD
This is a 128 bits hash.

RIPEMD128
This is also a 128 bits hash.

RIPEMD160
This is a 160 bits hash.

RIPEMD320
This is a 320 bits hash.

Snefru
This is a type of hash that has a range of 128 to 256 bits.

SWIFFT
This is a 512 bits hash.

Whirlpool
This is also a 512 bits hash.

SHA1
This is a 160 bits hash function based on Merkle–Damgård construction.

SHA224
This is a 224 bits hash function also based on Merkle–Damgård construction.

SHA256
This is a 256 bits hash function based on Merkle–Damgård construction.

SHA384
This is a 384 bits hash function based on Merkle–Damgård construction.

SHA512
This is a 512 bits hash function based on Merkle–Damgård construction.

SHA3(Keccak)
This is a hash function based on Sponge function and has an arbitary bits length.

Streebog
This is a type of cryptographic hash function that ranges from 256 to 512 bits and it’s based on Merkle–Damgård construction.

Tiger
This is a 192 bits hash function based on Merkle–Damgård construction.

Skein
This is a cryptographic hash function based on Unique Block Iteration and has an arbitary bits length.

Spectral Hash
This is a 512 bits hash function based on Wide pipe Merkle–Damgård construction.
A list of Cyclic redundancy checks

BSD checksum
This is a 16 bits errordetecting code.

Checksum
This is a 32 bits errordetecting code.

CRC16
This is also a 16 bits errordetecting code as the name suggests.

CRC32
This is a 32 bits errordetecting code.

CRC32 MPEG2
This is a 32 bits errordetecting code.

CRC64
This is a 64 bits errordetecting code.

SYSV checksum
This is a 16 bits errordetecting code.
A list of Checksums

Sum(Unix)
This is a 16 or 32 bits checksum algorithm.

Sum8
This is a 8 bits checksum algorithm.

Sum16
This is a 16 bits checksum.

Sum24
This is a 24 bits checksum algorithm.

Sum32
This is a 32 bits checksum algorithm.

Fletcher4
This is a 4 bits checksum.

Fletcher8
This is a 8 bits checksum.

Fletcher16
This is a 16 bits checksum.

Fletcher32
This is a 32 bits checksum.

Adler32
This is a 32 bits checksum algorithm.

Xor8
This is a 8 bits checksum.

Luhn algorithm
This is a 1 decimal digit checksum algorithm.

Verhoeff algorithm
This is also a 1 decimal digit checksum.

Damm algorithm
This is a 1 decimal digit error detection algorithm based on Quasigroup operation
A list of Noncryptographic hash functions
This is a 8 bits (and more) hash function based on XOR/table.
This is a 32 bits hash function.

Buzhash
This is a hash function based on XOR/table and has a variable bits length.
This is a non cryptographic hash function based on xor/product or product/XOR and has (32, 64, 128, 256, 512, or 1024 bits) lengths.
This is a non cryptographic hash function based on XOR/addition and has (32 or 64 bits) lengths.
This is a 32 bits non cryptographic hash.
This is also a 32 bits non cryptographic hash.
This is a 32 or 64 bits hash.
This is a non cryptographic hash function based on product/rotation and has (32, 64, or 128 bits) lengths.
This is a non cryptographic hash function based on Xorshift operations and has (32, 64 bits) lengths.
This is a 32, 64, or 128 bits non cryptographic hash.
This is a 64, 128, or 256 bits non cryptographic hash.
This is a 32, 64 or 128 bits non cryptographic hash.
This is a 64 or 128 bits non cryptographic hash.
This is a non cryptographic hash function based on Division/Modulo and has a variable bits length.
This is a non cryptographic hash function based on product/rotation and has a 32 or 64 bits length.
This is a non cryptographic hash function based on product/permutation and has a 64, 128, or 256 bits length.
This is a non cryptographic hash function based on product/rotation/XOR/add and has a 64 and 128 bits length.
A list of Universal hash function families

Zobrist hashing
This is a cryptographic hash function based on XOR and has a variable bits length.

Universal oneway hash function
This is a hash function that acts as an alternative to collisionresistant hash functions (CRHFs).

Tabulation hashing
This is a hash function based on XOR and has a variable bits length.

Rabin fingerprint
This is a hash based on multiply and has a variable bits length.
A list of other hash functions
This is a 32 or 64 bits cryptographic hash.
This is a 256, 384 or 512 bits hash.
This is a 256 or 512 bits hash.
This is a 256 or 512 bits hash.
This is a 81, 82, 84, 88, 161, 162, 164, 168 or 512 bits cryptographic hash.

Echo
This is a 256 or 512 bits hash.

Echosp hash function
This is a 256 or 512 bits cryptographic hash.

Edonr hash function
This is a 256 or 512 bits hash.

Essence
This is a 224, 256, 384 or 512 bits hash.

Fugue
This is a 2, 256, 384 or 512 bits hash.

Hamsi
This is a 256 or 512 bits hash.

Lane
This is a 256 or 512 bits hash.

Luffa
This is a 256, 384 or 512 bits hash.

Lux
This is a 256 or 512 bits hash.

Mcssha (4, 5 or 6)
This is a 512 bits hash.

Nasha
This is a 256 or 512 bits hash.

RFSB509
This hash uses SHA256 as an output filter.

Round3jh
This is a 256 or 512 bits cryptographic hash.

Sarmal
This is a 256 or 512 bits cryptographic hash.

Shabal
This is a 256 or 512 bits hash.

Shake
This is a 128 or 256 bits cryptographic hash.

Shavite (3256, 3512)
This is a 256 or 512 bits hash.

Simd
This is a 256 or 512 bits cryptographic hash.
Now I want to hear from you.
What do you think of this list?
Or maybe I missed one of your favorite hash function.
Either way, let me know by leaving a comment below.