A replay attack occurs when an attacker taps into a secure network communication, intercepts it, and then fraudulently delays or resends it.
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It is also known as a playback attack.
The aim of the attacker is to misdirect the recipient into doing what he wants.
Replay attacks help attackers to gain access to...

What are various methods of solving substitution ciphers.
A substitution cipher replaces each letter in the alphabet with another symbol.
These symbols could be letters, numbers, arcane symbols, lines and dots, and unknown squiggles.
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Are you interested in finding out more about ciphers and codes?
The Codebreakers – The Story of Secret Writing book by...

Sometime we like to send a secret message to a friend that only they can understand.
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So, how can we do that without going to trouble of creating our own secret language.
Actually, it is very simple.
By using a cipher wheel.
A cipher wheel replaces each letter of your message you want to...

From time to time, people are fond of using hashing and encryption interchangeably.
Nevertheless, the truth is these two words mean completely different things.
What are some of the differences between the two, and the situations in which you should use one over the other?
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This is a comparison between hashing vs encryption.
Hashing vs...

RSA and DSA are most common encryption algorithms in cryptography. Both of these encryption systems are used for data encryption.
Although both RSA and DSA work in a similar manner, there are specific differences between the two.
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This is a comparison between RSA vs DSA.
RSA vs DSA
In this guide I will be discussing the...

RSA algorithm is a cryptosystem for public-key encryption that is widely used for securing sensitive data when being sent over an insecure network such as the internet.
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The RSA algorithm is named after Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adleman, who invented it in 1977.
The basic idea had been discovered in...

Vernam cipher is a symmetrical stream cipher in which the plaintext is combined with a random or pseudorandom stream of data of the same length, to generate the ciphertext, using XOR function.
To put is simply, vernam cipher is based on the principle that each plaintext letter from a message is combined with one character from a key stream.

ADFGVX cipher is a fractionating transposition cipher that uses 6 by 6 square grid to replace the plaintext by pairs of letters among A, D, F, G, V, X and then this ciphertext get a permutation of its letters.
ADFGVX cipher combines an adapted Polybius Square with Columnar transposition, similar to trans-positing fractionated text.
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Homophonic cipher is a substitution cipher where each plaintext letter can be replaced by any of different ciphertext letters.
The substitutes are proportional to the frequency of the letter.
For example, letter “A” accounts for about 8% of all letters in English, so you can assign 8 symbols to represent it.
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Every time an...

Affine cipher is a monoalphabetic substitution cipher where each letter in an alphabet is mapped to its numeric equivalent, encrypted using a simple mathematical function, and converted back to a letter.
To put it simply, each letter of value x in a 26 letters alphabet in affine cipher is converted into another letter with the value ax + b modulo...

Trifid cipher is a trigraphic substitution cipher where each letter of the plaintext depends on three letters of the plaintext and up to three letters of the key.
It is also known as the 3 digit number cipher.
It combines substitution with transposition and fractionation.
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Trifid cipher uses a table to fractionate each plaintext...

Porta cipher is a polyalphabetic cipher that uses a key and a series of 13 reversible alphabets each associated with 2 letters of the alphabet.
For example, A and B for the first letter, C and D for the second, and so on.
Since the 13 cipher alphabets are reciprocal, encrypting and decrypting are the same.
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